737

Given the following code:

DB::table('users')->get();

I want to get the raw SQL query string that the database query builder above will generate. In this example, it would be SELECT * FROM users.

How do I do this?

3
  • 22
    Laravel Eloquent ORM get raw query: echo User::where('status', 1)->toSql(); Oct 8, 2017 at 5:05
  • I am using a packet for Laravel - Telescope, it logs all queries and do many more things.
    – vinsa
    Mar 9, 2020 at 13:44
  • All of these answers start with the DB class instead of a model. What if you're calling methods on a model class?.
    – ahnbizcad
    Jun 25, 2021 at 18:28

39 Answers 39

967

Use the toSql() method on a QueryBuilder instance.

DB::table('users')->toSql() would return:

select * from `users`

This is easier than wiring up an event listener, and also lets you check what the query will actually look like at any point while you're building it.

Note: This method works for query builder or Eloquent, however toSql() is used instead of first() or get(). You cannot run the query and also get the SQL at the same time using this method.

13
  • 8
    I think this is the easiest way when using Eloquent outside Laravel
    – Gab
    Feb 4, 2014 at 3:29
  • 10
    @Stormsson That's not possible because PHP never has the query with the bindings replaced with their values. To get the queries in their entirety you need to log them from MySQL. There's more info here: stackoverflow.com/questions/1786322/…
    – Matthew
    Aug 31, 2014 at 20:20
  • 47
    @Stormsson you can use getBindings method. This'll return the bindings in order that they'll be bound to the SQL statement.
    – danronmoon
    Oct 1, 2015 at 18:26
  • 53
    To get query with bindinds $query = \DB::table('users')->where('id', 10); $sql = str_replace_array('?', $query->getBindings(), $query->toSql()); dd($sql); Jul 13, 2018 at 14:31
  • 12
    for laravel 6 $query = \DB::table('users')->where('id', 10); Str::replaceArray('?', $query->getBindings(), $query->toSql()); output select * from users where id = 10
    – okandas
    Apr 8, 2020 at 7:49
919

To output to the screen the last queries ran you can use this:

\DB::enableQueryLog(); // Enable query log

// Your Eloquent query executed by using get()

dd(\DB::getQueryLog()); // Show results of log

I believe the most recent queries will be at the bottom of the array.

You will have something like that:

array(1) {
  [0]=>
  array(3) {
    ["query"]=>
    string(21) "select * from "users""
    ["bindings"]=>
    array(0) {
    }
    ["time"]=>
    string(4) "0.92"
  }
}

(Thanks to Joshua's comment below.)

14
  • 2
    hmm im not sure but you may be able to accompish what you want with a composer package stackoverflow.com/a/17339752/813181
    – jfortunato
    Aug 14, 2013 at 16:22
  • 9
    Might even be better to output it to your application's log using the Log class: Log::debug(DB::getQueryLog())
    – msturdy
    Aug 14, 2013 at 16:51
  • 40
    You may need to enable this as it's turned off by default now. You can use this command to turn it on temporarily: DB::enableQueryLog(); Jan 3, 2016 at 20:51
  • 7
    I tried your answer. What I tried is DB::enableQueryLog(); dd(DB::getQueryLog()); But it returns just [].... Aug 31, 2017 at 4:51
  • 11
    If you have multiple databases, you may need to do DB::connection('database')->getQueryLog() Sep 27, 2018 at 3:27
147

DB::QueryLog() works only after you execute the query using $builder->get().

If you want to get the raw query before or without executing the query, you can use the $builder->toSql() method.

Example to get the raw SQL and to replace '?' with actual binding values:

$query = str_replace(array('?'), array('\'%s\''), $builder->toSql());
$query = vsprintf($query, $builder->getBindings());
dump($query);

$result = $builder->get();

Or you can deliberately trigger an error, for example, by using a non-existent table or column. Then you can see the generated query in the exception message.

6
  • 4
    This is, by far, the best answer, simple and straight to the point. Thanks :)
    – Sobakus
    Mar 19, 2018 at 12:52
  • 26
    As a one-liner: $query = vsprintf(str_replace(array('?'), array('\'%s\''), $builder->toSql()), $builder->getBindings());
    – kramer65
    Jun 28, 2018 at 15:58
  • This should be included in the framework as a native function.. thanks Sep 5, 2019 at 10:33
  • 1
    Note that this will not work if your query already has percent signs such as for a LIKE query or when formatting dates. You'll need to escape those first with double percent signs. Feb 19, 2020 at 16:37
  • Are there security concerns when doing this? Do the bindings come sanitized from $builder->getBindings()?
    – solidau
    May 15, 2020 at 22:28
64

You can listen to the 'illuminate.query' event. Before the query add the following event listener:

Event::listen('illuminate.query', function($query, $params, $time, $conn) 
{ 
    dd(array($query, $params, $time, $conn));
});

DB::table('users')->get();

This will print out something like:

array(4) {
  [0]=>
  string(21) "select * from "users""
  [1]=>
  array(0) {
  }
  [2]=>
  string(4) "0.94"
  [3]=>
  string(6) "sqlite"
}
3
  • 2
    I get Call to undefined method Illuminate\Database\Query\Builder::listen() in Laravel 4 Oct 3, 2014 at 8:59
  • 3
    Thanks this is great. Its good to note that dd is a function that produces a Dump the given variable and end execution of the script and also that to import Event, include use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Event;
    – radtek
    Jun 17, 2015 at 17:47
  • 1
    @radtek: Instead of use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Event; you can simply do use Event; since it's a facade. Dec 4, 2015 at 11:23
59

If you are trying to get the Log using Illuminate without Laravel use:

\Illuminate\Database\Capsule\Manager::getQueryLog();

You could also nock up a quick function like so:

function logger()
{
    $queries = \Illuminate\Database\Capsule\Manager::getQueryLog();
    $formattedQueries = [];
    foreach ($queries as $query) :
        $prep = $query['query'];

        foreach ($query['bindings'] as $binding) :

            if (is_bool($binding)) {
                $val = $binding === true ? 'TRUE' : 'FALSE';
            } else if (is_numeric($binding)) {
                $val = $binding;
            } else {
                $val = "'$binding'";
            }

            $prep = preg_replace("#\?#", $val, $prep, 1);
        endforeach;
        $formattedQueries[] = $prep;
    endforeach;
    return $formattedQueries;
}

EDIT

updated versions seem to have query logging disabled by default (the above returns an empty array). To turn back on, when initialising the Capsule Manager, grab an instance of the connection and call the enableQueryLog method

$capsule::connection()->enableQueryLog();

EDIT AGAIN

Taking the actual question into consideration, you could actually do the following to convert the current single query instead of all previous queries:

$sql = $query->toSql();
$bindings = $query->getBindings();
6
  • i am getting this type of return from query "name = [{"name":"rifat"}]" what i need to do to get "name = rifat" only? Jan 15, 2017 at 11:54
  • I would print out your bindings, looks like you are passing an array instead of a string Jan 16, 2017 at 13:28
  • This is a helpful start, but it seems to neglect to add single quotes around parameterized values, such as when I pass a string like 'US/Eastern'.
    – Ryan
    May 8, 2017 at 14:52
  • 1
    @Ryan this is true hence why I stated quick function. I believe the underlying code will use prepare (php.net/manual/en/mysqli.prepare.php) methods, which is why just the ? is required. You could php.net/manual/en/function.is-numeric.php to determine whether or not to encapsulate the input within single quotes. May 9, 2017 at 12:01
  • 1
    @LukeSnowden Your answer is genius! I finally took the time to try out your new version (which I edited above to include your is_numeric idea), and it works! I love this. Thank you.
    – Ryan
    Jul 25, 2017 at 17:11
43

There is a method in eloquent for getting query string.

toSql()

in our case,

 DB::table('users')->toSql(); 

return

select * from users

is the exact solution that return the SQL query string..Hope this helpful...

1
  • 14
    what about the query bindings? e.g. when you do ->where('foo', '=', 'bar') bar wont show in the sql
    – Toskan
    Nov 23, 2016 at 0:47
32
$data = User::toSql();
echo $data; //this will retrun select * from users. //here User is model
3
  • This is much more precise, controlled, and meets the need of the question. Apr 4, 2018 at 11:39
  • Thank you for your comment. Apr 4, 2018 at 11:51
  • 2
    You can append ->toSql() as you would do if there are more arguments after the model. e.g. User::where('id', 1)->toSql() May 6, 2018 at 16:19
26

If you use laravel 5.1 and MySQL you can use this function made by me:

/*
 *  returns SQL with values in it
 */
function getSql($model)
{
    $replace = function ($sql, $bindings)
    {
        $needle = '?';
        foreach ($bindings as $replace){
            $pos = strpos($sql, $needle);
            if ($pos !== false) {
                if (gettype($replace) === "string") {
                     $replace = ' "'.addslashes($replace).'" ';
                }
                $sql = substr_replace($sql, $replace, $pos, strlen($needle));
            }
        }
        return $sql;
    };
    $sql = $replace($model->toSql(), $model->getBindings());
    
    return $sql;
}

As an input parameter you can use either of these

Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Builder

Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\HasMany

Illuminate\Database\Query\Builder

1
  • Answer improved to include all remarks made in comments. Thank you very much. Sep 27, 2017 at 22:57
26

This is the far best solution I can suggest to any one for debug-ing eloquent last query or final query although this has been discussed as well:

// query builder
$query = DB::table('table_name')->where('id', 1);

// binding replaced
$sql = str_replace_array('?', $query->getBindings(), $query->toSql());

// for laravel 5.8^
$sql = Str::replaceArray('?', $query->getBindings(), $query->toSql());

// print
dd($sql);
1
  • 1
    you need to use the below line in the top of your code: for beginner use Illuminate\Support\Str; to use the Str class Jan 23, 2021 at 7:39
19

First You will need to enable the query log by calling:

DB::enableQueryLog();

after queries using the DB facade you can write:

dd(DB::getQueryLog());

the output will like below:

array:1 [▼
  0 => array:3 [▼
    "query" => "select * from `users` left join `website_user` on `users`.`id` = `website_user`.`user_id` left join `region_user` on `users`.`id` = `region_user`.`user_id` left ▶"
    "bindings" => array:5 [▶]
    "time" => 3.79
  ]
]
4
  • very helpful answer
    – Anoop P S
    Apr 2, 2019 at 9:47
  • hi i have used $result = DB::select('select * from sqrt_user_modules where user_id = :id', ['id' => $user]); DB::enableQueryLog(); but didnt get any output dd(DB::getQueryLog());
    – Anoop P S
    Apr 2, 2019 at 10:44
  • do we need to include any library
    – Anoop P S
    Apr 2, 2019 at 10:44
  • 1
    Step 1: DB::enableQueryLog(); step 2 :$result = DB::select('select * from sqrt_user_modules where user_id = :id', ['id' => $user]); step 3: dd(DB::getQueryLog());
    – Ravi Mane
    Apr 2, 2019 at 10:57
16

A 'macroable' replacement to get the SQL query with the bindings.

  1. Add below macro function in AppServiceProvider boot() method.

    \Illuminate\Database\Query\Builder::macro('toRawSql', function(){
        return array_reduce($this->getBindings(), function($sql, $binding){
            return preg_replace('/\?/', is_numeric($binding) ? $binding : "'".$binding."'" , $sql, 1);
        }, $this->toSql());
    });
    
  2. Add an alias for the Eloquent Builder. (Laravel 5.4+)

    \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Builder::macro('toRawSql', function(){
        return ($this->getQuery()->toRawSql());
    });
    
  3. Then debug as usual. (Laravel 5.4+)

    E.g. Query Builder

    \Log::debug(\DB::table('users')->limit(1)->toRawSql())
    

    E.g. Eloquent Builder

    \Log::debug(\App\User::limit(1)->toRawSql());
    

Note: from Laravel 5.1 to 5.3, Since Eloquent Builder doesn't make use of the Macroable trait, cannot add toRawSql an alias to the Eloquent Builder on the fly. Follow the below example to achieve the same.

E.g. Eloquent Builder (Laravel 5.1 - 5.3)

\Log::debug(\App\User::limit(1)->getQuery()->toRawSql());
2
  • Whoops, I came late. Just want to submit an answer using Macro. This is the nicest answer. Should be the accepted answer :D
    – nmfzone
    Nov 29, 2018 at 9:43
  • You can abstract away the latter in a scope on the base Model Sep 13, 2019 at 12:00
14

First way:

Simply you can do following stuff using toSql() method,

$query = DB::table('users')->get();

echo $query->toSql();

If it's not working you can set-up the thing from laravel documentation.

Second way:

Another way to do it is

DB::getQueryLog()

but if it's returns an empty array then by default it's disabled visit this,

just enable with DB::enableQueryLog() and it will work :)

for more info visit Github Issue to know more about it.

Hope it helps :)

14

As of Laravel 5.8.15 the query builder now has dd and dump methods so you can do

DB::table('data')->where('a', 1)->dump();
2
  • Thanks. dd works really well. DB::table('data')->where('a', 1)->dd();
    – Waqas
    Dec 22, 2019 at 11:13
  • 1
    Better than other answers listed. Dec 30, 2019 at 16:42
12

The most easiest way is to make deliberate mistake. For example, I want to see the full SQL query of the following relation:

 public function jobs()
        {
            return $this->belongsToMany(Job::class, 'eqtype_jobs')
                   ->withPivot(['created_at','updated_at','id'])
                   ->orderBy('pivot_created_at','desc');
        }

I just to make a column to be not found, here I choose created_at and I changed it to created_ats by adding trailing s to be:

public function jobs()
            {
                return $this->belongsToMany(Job::class, 'eqtype_jobs')
                       ->withPivot(['created_ats','updated_at','id'])
                       ->orderBy('pivot_created_at','desc');
            }

So, the debuger will return the following error:

(4/4) ErrorException SQLSTATE[42S22]: Column not found: 1054 Unknown column 'eqtype_jobs.created_ats' in 'field list' (SQL: select jobs.*, eqtype_jobs.set_id as pivot_set_id, eqtype_jobs.job_id as pivot_job_id, eqtype_jobs.created_ats as pivot_created_ats, eqtype_jobs.updated_at as pivot_updated_at, eqtype_jobs.id as pivot_id from jobs inner join eqtype_jobs on jobs.id = eqtype_jobs.job_id where eqtype_jobs.set_id = 56 order by pivot_created_at desc limit 20 offset 0) (View: /home/said/www/factory/resources/views/set/show.blade.php)

The above error message returns the full SQL query with the mistake

SQL: select  jobs.*, eqtype_jobs.set_id as pivot_set_id,  eqtype_jobs.job_id as pivot_job_id, eqtype_jobs.created_ats as pivot_created_ats, eqtype_jobs.updated_at as  pivot_updated_at, eqtype_jobs.id as pivot_id from jobs inner join eqtype_jobs on jobs.id = eqtype_jobs.job_id where  eqtype_jobs.set_id = 56 order by pivot_created_at desc limit 20 offset 0

Now, just remove the extra s from created_at and test this SQL as you like in any SQL editor such as phpMyAdmin SQL editor!

Notice:

The solution has been tested with Laravel 5.4.

3
  • 2
    This is the best answer by far! So simple! :)
    – Picard
    Dec 18, 2018 at 14:51
  • This will not show the query with bindings, ie bindings will show like :id Jan 30, 2019 at 9:58
  • @ShanthaKumara Indeed, I don't know what is the version or the configuration of Laravel that you have used. However, every snippet or code in my answer was copied and pasted from real code output of Laravel 5.4 project.
    – SaidbakR
    Jan 30, 2019 at 12:45
12

In my opinion, this will be the best approach as a beginner:

echo "<pre>";
print_r($query->toSql());
print_r($query->getBindings());

This is also depicted here. https://stackoverflow.com/a/59207557/9573341

11

Add this function to your application and simply call.

function getQuery($sql){
        $query = str_replace(array('?'), array('\'%s\''), $sql->toSql());
        $query = vsprintf($query, $sql->getBindings());     
        return $query;
}

Output: "select * from user where lang = 'en' and status = '1' order by updated_at desc limit 25 offset 0"

10

use debugbar package

composer require "barryvdh/laravel-debugbar": "2.3.*"

enter image description here

10

There's a lot of information already answered, will just post my own findings that i've been using whenever i need to output the sql query before it's being executed.

Consider below sample:

$user = DB::table('user')->where('id',1);
echo $user->toSql();

echo $user->toSql() = This will just out put the raw query but will not show the parameter(s) passed.

To output the query with the parameter being passed we can use laravel getBindings() and helper str_replace_array like this:

$queryWithParam = str_replace_array('?',$user->getBindings(),$user->toSql());
echo $queryWithParam;

Hope this also helps.

0
8

From laravel 5.2 and onward. you can use DB::listen to get executed queries.

DB::listen(function ($query) {
    // $query->sql
    // $query->bindings
    // $query->time
});

Or if you want to debug a single Builder instance then you can use toSql method.

DB::table('posts')->toSql(); 
1
  • 1
    The listen thing is useful, declare it before running the query, and dump out the sql & bindings within the method. Imperfect but works quicker/easier than other answers.
    – Andrew
    Feb 4, 2018 at 20:50
7

To See Laravel Executed Query use laravel query log

DB::enableQueryLog();

$queries = DB::getQueryLog();
0
6

This is the function, I placed in my base model class. Simply pass the query builder object into it and the SQL string will be returned.

function getSQL($builder) {
  $sql = $builder->toSql();
  foreach ( $builder->getBindings() as $binding ) {
    $value = is_numeric($binding) ? $binding : "'".$binding."'";
    $sql = preg_replace('/\?/', $value, $sql, 1);
  }
  return $sql;
}
6

You can use toSql method - the easiest way

DB::table('users')->toSql();

And also if you have bindings in your query and want to see the query with bindings. You cant use somthing like that:

$query = DB::table('table')->whereIn('some_field', [1,2,30]); 

$sql_with_bindings = str_replace_array('?', $query->getBindings(), $query->toSql());

dd($sql_with_bindings);
5

Try this:

$results = DB::table('users')->toSql();
dd($results);

Note: get() has been replaced with toSql() to display the raw SQL query.

4

For laravel 5.5.X

If you would like to receive each SQL query executed by your application, you may use the listen method. This method is useful for logging queries or debugging. You may register your query listener in a service provider:

<?php

namespace App\Providers;

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\DB;
use Illuminate\Support\ServiceProvider;

class AppServiceProvider extends ServiceProvider
{
    /**
     * Bootstrap any application services.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function boot()
    {
        DB::listen(function ($query) {
            // $query->sql
            // $query->bindings
            // $query->time
        });
    }

    /**
     * Register the service provider.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function register()
    {
        //
    }
}

Source

4

My way of doing this, based on the log view, only needs to modify the file app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php:

  1. Add this code into app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php
/**
 * Bootstrap any application services.
 *
 * @return void
 */
public function boot()
{
    //
    DB::listen(function ($query) {
        $querySql = str_replace(['?'], ['\'%s\''], $query->sql);
        $queryRawSql = vsprintf($querySql, $query->bindings);
        Log::debug('[SQL EXEC]', [
                "raw sql"  => $queryRawSql,
                "time" => $query->time,
            ]
        );
    });
}
  1. My sql handle code :
$users = DB::table('users')
    ->select(DB::raw('count(*) as user_count, username '))
    ->where('uid', '>=', 10)
    ->limit(100)
    ->groupBy('username')
    ->get()
;
dd($users);
  1. See log storage/logs/laravel-2019-10-27.log :
[2019-10-27 17:39:17] local.DEBUG: [SQL EXEC] {"raw sql":"select count(*) as user_count, username  from `users` where `uid` >= '10' group by `username` limit 100","time":304.21} 
4

In order to log all the executed queries you can use DB::enableQueryLog() icw DB::getQueryLog(). The output has the structure below.

[
  [
    "query" => "select * from "users" where name = ?"
    "bindings" => ["John Doe"]
    "time" => 0.34
  ],
  ...
]

Furthermore, I combined some answers here in order to get the perfect function to parse the sql with the compiled bindings. See below. I even created a custom Builder class implementing this functionality in order to do e.g. User::where('name','John Doe')->parse();

function parse_sql(string $sql, array $bindings) : string
{
  $compiled_bindings  = array_map('compile_binding', $bindings);

  return preg_replace_array("/\?/", $compiled_bindings, $sql);
}

function compile_binding($binding)
{
  $grammar = new MySqlGrammar;

  if (is_bool($binding))
  {
    return (int)$binding; //This line depends on the database implementation
  }

  if(is_string($binding))
  {
    return "'$binding'";
  }

  if ($binding instanceof DateTimeInterface)
  {
    return $binding->format($grammar->getDateFormat());
  }

  return $binding;
}
3

You can use this package for get all the queries which are executing when you load your page

https://github.com/barryvdh/laravel-debugbar
1
  • That package is good when you don't have query errors. If you have an SQL error it won't show anything
    – lewis4u
    Apr 16, 2020 at 9:13
3

As much as I love this framework, I hate when it acts like crap.

DB::enableQueryLog() is totally useless. DB::listen is equally useless. It showed part of the query when I said $query->count(), but if I do $query->get(), it has nothing to say.

The only solution that appears to work consistently is to intentionally put some syntax or other error in the ORM parameters, like an nonexistent column/table name, run your code on the command line while in debug mode, and it will spit out the SQL error with the full frickin' query finally. Otherwise, hopefully the error appears in the log file if ran from the web server.

1
  • The query log works fine for me at least. You should have some other errors in your application Aug 27, 2018 at 11:41
3

Print last query

DB::enableQueryLog();

$query        = DB::getQueryLog();
$lastQuery    = end($query);
print_r($lastQuery);
3

If you are using tinker and want to log the SQL query formed you can do

$ php artisan tinker
Psy Shell v0.9.9 (PHP 7.3.5 — cli) by Justin Hileman
>>> DB::listen(function ($query) { dump($query->sql); dump($query->bindings); dump($query->time); });
=> null
>>> App\User::find(1)
"select * from `users` where `users`.`id` = ? limit 1"
array:1 [
  0 => 1
]
6.99
=> App\User {#3131
     id: 1,
     name: "admin",
     email: "admin@example.com",
     created_at: "2019-01-11 19:06:23",
     updated_at: "2019-01-11 19:06:23",
   }
>>>

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